Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu: Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information

 

Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu: Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information

by Mirela Teodorescu

“The pendulum of the mind oscillates between sense and nonsense, not between right and wrong.” (C.J. Jung)

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology and literature.

Logic is a fundamental component of advanced computer classes. Reference is constantly being made to how the rules of logic are incorporated into the fundamental circuits of a computer. The logic used in these classes is known as classical or Boolean logic. Neutrosophic logic is an extension of classical logic, there are two intermediate steps between them. Neutrosophic logic is an idea generated by Florentin Smarandache. Like classical logic, it can be used in many ways, everywhere from statistics to quantum mechanics. Neutrosophy is more than just a form of logic however. There are several different definitions, extending into many different fields.

The Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.

The fundamental thesis of neutrosophy is that every idea has not only a certain degree of truth, as is generally assumed in many-valued logic contexts, but also a falsity degree and an indeterminacy degree that have to be considered independently from each other. Smarandache seems to understand such “indeterminacy” both in a subjective and an objective sense, i.e. as uncertainty as well as imprecision, vagueness, error, doubtfulness etc Neutrosophy has laid the foundation for a whole family of new mathematical theories generalizing both their classical and fuzzy counterparts, such as neutrosophic set theory, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics and neutrosophic logic. The neutrosophic framework has already found practical applications in a variety of different fields, such as relational database systems, semantic web services, financial data set detection and new economies growth and decline analysis.

 

Neutrosophic emergences are the unexpected occurrences of some major neutrosophic effects from the interaction of some minor qualitative elements. Emergence would be seen as a major phenomenon occurrence, important and significant from the reaction of two or more minor unimportant, insignificant elements. On the other hand, we describe the incidence as the application of a law, of an axiom, of an idea, of a conceptual accredited construction on an unclear, indeterminate phenomenon, contradictory to the purpose of making it intelligible. The incidence is the intelligibilization procedure using the concept: basically apply a previous theoretically validated concept is practically applied. If the emergence is a variant of the cognitive bottom – up processing, the incidence is a variant of the top – down cognitive processing.

Neutrosophy had been in the emergence phase since 1995. With its certification by the scientific community, Neutrosophy has become a type of incident knowledge, i.e. applicable in different fields. Neutrosophy  legitimating was achieved by developing some doctoral research, through learning theory as a way of description, explanation and forecast and implementation of neutrosophic congress and conferences.

It can be said that the emergence and incidence are specific neutrosophic concepts: the appearance-occurrence and the imposing-application apply, above all, to Neutrosophy itself. Like a good doctor, neutrosophy applies its most toxic treatments to itself. It is well-known that, in their way, the best medicines are poisons with no remedy, too: medicines are some toxins without counter medicines. There are not drugs against drugs.

So Neutrosophy makes the emergence and the incidence visible as neutrosophic events and it also holds itself in the universe of emergences and incidences.

As we know, Neutrosophy handles all neutralities. In the neutrosophic taxonometry, a class of neutralities is represented by the neutralities that, without turning into contradiction, generate qualitative leaps. The emergence is the cognitive phenomenon in which, from two or more connected neutralities, without contradiction, a change of quality or a qualitative leap result. Thinking in Hegelian terms has an axiom the idea that the qualitative change, qualitative emergences may arise from related neutral items. The studies of the book show either how neutrosophic effects burst in different worlds of spirituality, of thought, of knowledge, of experience, or how neutrosophic elements get influence-incidence in so varied universe.

 

The book is structured on three chapters.

 

Chapter 1, developed by professor Florentin Smarandache, is the visible path of Neutrosophy emergence. He presents the joints of Neutrosophy, describes neutrosophics phenomena, explains the operations of neutrosophics analytics and establish the platform for neutrosophic thinking.

Neutrosophy according to the dictionary definition is a branch of philosophy,  which studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. Neutrosophy considers a proposition, theory, event, idea, concept, or entity, „A” in relation to its opposite, „Anti-A” and that which is not A, „Non-A”, and that which is neither „A” nor „Anti-A”, denoted by „Neut-A”. Neutrosophy is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic set, and neutrosophic statistics. (Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by C. & G. Merri).

 

The fundamental Thesis:  Any idea  is T% true, I% indeterminate, and F%  false, where  T, I, F are  standard or  non-standard subsets  included in

0, 1+.

The fundamental Theory: Every idea <A> tends to be neutralized, diminished, balanced by <Non-A> ideas (not only <Anti-A>, as Hegel asserted) – as a state of equilibrium.

Neutrosophy is the base of neutrosophic logic, a multiple value logic that generalizes the fuzzy logic, of neutrosophic set that generalize the fuzzy set, and of neutrosophic probability and neutrosophic statistics, which generalize the classical and imprecise probability and statistics respectively.

 

Will really do the Humanity arrived to the its insensibility limit where it is just reason, where the feeling definitively lost its existential value? If it is true  means that Albert Camus was right: only logical solution is suicide. To run from the darkness of the death, of the nightmares that ourselves generate them on its behalf, we have some solutions among which obvious suicide, or why not the optimism of the life spectacle. Suicide is <anti-A>; authentic beside the optimism represented by the neutrosophic <A>. If we accept the suicide or the equivalent or the <anti-A> is such as we should accept to spite ours face. As Brâncuşi said that he is not creating the beauty, he only remove the idle material to be easier for us to identify the beauty beside him. As well in this study is defined (is removed) <anti-A> for the its beauty and meaning, to be visible the beauty of our existence in front of its non-existence. Of the non-existence fears any existence, even the Universe itself, maybe only nonexistence itself is not afraid of itself, or maybe people who forget in their existence or do not know that they exist there. Likewise, we define (we remove) <anti-A> for the beauty and its meaning… to be visible the beauty of our existence in front of nonexistence.

 

Chapter 2, developed  by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu, highlights the emergence and the development of a communication-collaboration neutrosophic function of universities (any communication-collaboration includes a mandatory component of neutrality that allows entities to put something together or to create something together).

This study is based on practical foundation such as: Premise 1- if two members of university on two continents meet on the Internet and initiate interdisciplinary scientific communication; Premise 2- subsequently, if within the curricular interests they develop an academic scientific collaboration; Premise 3 – if the so-called collaboration integrates the interests of other members of university; Premise 4- finality, if the university allows, accepts, validates and promotes such an approach, then  Processing: it means the university as a system (the global academic system) has and it is exerting a potential function to provide communication, collaboration and integration of research and of academic scientific experience. This function is called “e-function Smarandache”. It is specialized, according to the functions of “teaching-learning”, “researching”, “the public interest” and “entrepreneurial interest”, as the fifth function. E-function makes visible a functional structure in a scientific scan: the communicative collaborative integrative paradigm.

The other four functions are: the concept of university– being as the oldest and the most thorough history, as a place of knowledge, a medium of self-understanding; university as an organization – as a social group dedicated to a specific task, it exploits some of the statutes and potential roles of its members; university as a system – has inputs (like resources such as personnel, material, money, energy, information and external managerial information related to customer demands, consumer behaviors, marketing conditions, economic situations)  and outputs, also there are organizational mechanism that transforms the resource inputs into outputs; institutionalized functions of the university – based on “teaching-learning” and “researching” as Humboltian university paradigm.

Information era has induced significant changes in internal environment and external environment of the university system. It has generated changes in the way the system should respond to the challenges and opportunities generated by the digital revolution, the technological revolution. University system must adapt to external processes. To the external environment changes, the university management must respond adaptively. The technological revolution has brought not only the transformation of the external environment, it has also brought new tools for the university system to adapt. The challenge is primarily one of the university system functioning in its management coordinate and, secondly, in its “production” coordinate. The vision, missions and academic values are going through changes. In their content, strategic management includes adaptive tasks to respond to exogenous factors induced by digitalization: extended or sometimes generalized computing, Internet communication, rapid globalization of knowledge, of discoveries, of innovations, etc.

University is becoming more and more a place for creative knowledge. In visions, missions and values functional commitments begin to transpire. In other words, on their own some universities assume new functions. In time, through their inter-university resonance, similar commitments in visions, mission and values go national. They are institutionalized and become functions of any university system.

“We value and fight, mention the authors, for strengthening and developing the communicative-collaborative-integrative functions of the global university system. If the Digital Age brings, however, globalization and interdependence, we should not expect that they be imposed, but we should welcome them. It is good to settle all opportunities from challenging. It would be a beneficial and wondering feed-forward response. In fact, some steps towards this emerging fifth function are already taken”.

 

In Chapter 3,  Ştefan Vlăduţescu (Associate Professor at the University of Craiova, Romania) performs an X-ray of the information coordinates from neutrosophical perspective; realizes a description of the existence and functioning of information as a four-axial material energetic configuration.

Information is defined as process and construction. Information is a novelty that appears as news, declaration, opinion, statement, etc. Knowing  the information properties represents the cognitive base of information operating, either it is sampling type, extraction, or information establishment. There are highlighted four „aspects” of information: metric, structural, semantic and pragmatic. Metric coordinate, as quantitative attribute, “points the  purely technical process of transmission” without to involve the meaning of messages transferred. It is the direction, the vector on which is measured the novelty and  consist of determining the amount of information of an event (socio-human, technical, verbal, etc.), respective in the quantum of uncertainty that is removed by its occurrence. The respective size, opposite entropy, depends on the number of type probability events that can be distinguished at a time. The amount of information concretizes by its size the uncertainty scale that is canceled with the election or updating of an option. It is the quantification of the relation between virtuality and act. Producing of a certain event has a certain probability, which expresses the mathematical indeterminacy and uncertainty. Cl. Shannon and W. Weaver borrowed the entropy term from thermodynamics, but they, in information theory, the concept has a different content, being „the measure of unexpectancy at the choice of  source of signal occurrence„. The concept of amount of information is related in a completely naturally a notion from statistical mechanics: the notion of entropy. As the amount of information in a system is a measure of the degree of organization of the system, so the entropy of a system is a measure of the degree of disorganization; one is equal to the other in the opposite direction. On metric axis, the message is registered between originality and banality. It is configured as the geometric locus of originality and comprehensibility. They are complementary: if a message is completely original, perfectly unpredictable, it is unintelligible; if it is totally predictable, it will be absolutely trivial. Production novelty is related to the producing probability.

Concerning the novelty of information, the author asserts, “as „in any true poetry is designed a sacred action„, in any communication is projected a communication action. Each of these lives as a reality in which peace, stability and balance are turned to the essence of novelty of the world: non-original meaning we are gradually revealed, it becomes order, meaning and sense. The man introduces sense . He is, however, first a disorientation that causes a tenseness leading to the deviations. Novelty increase from a significant tension that can take different forms: dissonance, deviation, surprise, breaking, difference.”

Information quality is a complex function, modeled by 3  key variables existing in the middle of three coordinates: structural, semantic and pragmatic. “Quality, mentions the author,  is the synthesis of substantial characteristics of semantic- structural- pragmatic configurations. It does not represent an attribute, but it constitutes itself the substance of information. As such, of quality it can talk only after we associate with an information”. „There is no a priori order of things” showed Wittgenstein L, also neither any other non-human order, it would be to add. „Order” of states, people is really in fact an organization that produced human cognition. Information makes order and input an organization.

Information limits are obscure, ambiguous, uncertainty. The border that separates the world of chaos is the same. This is not because the information is itself ambiguous and insignificant, but because its limits are very large, difficult to fix. Against appearances, however, the information sets limits of the world. “I am a human being, I consider nothing that is human alien to me” said Terence. In a paraphrase: I am human and none of what is informative I am not foreign, because  humanity, the world is information. On structural coordinated, information  appears as element of knowledge in relation with the structure and functioning of the world.

Information, as event of gnosis practice, doesn’t find the goal in itself, so that the utility is one of its essential features. As a form of cognition, no matter how ineffectual it may seem at a time, like any cognition, and however little we would improve, the overall, knowledge base, has an utility even if it is not based, will not justify the categorical, it is kept in our cognitive instance: „our pleasure” – information enjoyment. Information is not lost, it becomes to be at least a pleasure, or at the greatest level a pleasure, as the great  performance is pleasure. The pragmatic quality, utility extends therefore between pleasure and achieving the goal and is manifested in making decisions and performing processes.

 

The book, Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu,  represents the buoy that marks the transition of neutrosophy from the emergence phase to the incidence phase. Like any entity, ideas are born and acquire emergence. Some ideas impose and pass to the stage of incidence. Other ideas fade away. For some ideational configurations, the emergence matures into incidence, for others the emergence gets into implosion. In other words, some emergences are validated and accredited, and others get into the implosion. Any emergence is a promise. When they keep their promises, they are felt as strong ideas, as influential ideas and, thus, they have an impact in different areas of the universe of knowledge. Emergence is a tectonic development. Incidence is emergence applicability and its certification. The book is underlain on a solid ideational, well-founded argumentative and coherent written. From this perspective, it asserts  the consulting of students, masters and doctoral students in areas such as philosophy, communication. However, without exaggeration, it is useful to any cultivated mind who wants to know what is happening in the society ethics he lives.

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